THE TRAVEL DOCTOR
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Do you know which medicines you should take with you on your travels?

By accessing the interactive part of this web site you can obtain a list of all the medicines necessary for your trip.

Whether you are going on a holiday to a beach resort or a full blown expedition to some remote location.

However long you will be away or however many people will be in your group, wherever you are going and whatever you are doing, you can obtain your own customised list.

To access this special service:-

 
Member of the
British Travel Health
Association

 
 
 
 
 
 

Do you know which medicines you should take with you on your travels?

By accessing the interactive part of this web site you can obtain a list of all the medicines necessary for your trip.

Whether you are going on a holiday to a beach resort or a full blown expedition to some remote location.

However long you will be away or however many people will be in your group, wherever you are going and whatever you are doing, you can obtain your own customised list.

To access this special service:-

 
Member of the
British Travel Health
Association

 
 
 

Do you know which medicines you should take with you on your travels?

By accessing the interactive part of this web site you can obtain a list of all the medicines necessary for your trip.

Whether you are going on a holiday to a beach resort or a full blown expedition to some remote location.

However long you will be away or however many people will be in your group, wherever you are going and whatever you are doing, you can obtain your own customised list.

To access this special service:-

 
Member of the
British Travel Health
Association

 
 
 

Do you know which medicines you should take with you on your travels?

By accessing the interactive part of this web site you can obtain a list of all the medicines necessary for your trip.

Whether you are going on a holiday to a beach resort or a full blown expedition to some remote location.

However long you will be away or however many people will be in your group, wherever you are going and whatever you are doing, you can obtain your own customised list.

To access this special service:-

 
Member of the
British Travel Health
Association

 
 
 

Do you know which medicines you should take with you on your travels?

By accessing the interactive part of this web site you can obtain a list of all the medicines necessary for your trip.

Whether you are going on a holiday to a beach resort or a full blown expedition to some remote location.

However long you will be away or however many people will be in your group, wherever you are going and whatever you are doing, you can obtain your own customised list.

To access this special service:-

 
Member of the
British Travel Health
Association

 
 
 

Do you know which medicines you should take with you on your travels?

By accessing the interactive part of this web site you can obtain a list of all the medicines necessary for your trip.

Whether you are going on a holiday to a beach resort or a full blown expedition to some remote location.

However long you will be away or however many people will be in your group, wherever you are going and whatever you are doing, you can obtain your own customised list.

To access this special service:-

 
Member of the
British Travel Health
Association

 
 
 

Do you know which medicines you should take with you on your travels?

By accessing the interactive part of this web site you can obtain a list of all the medicines necessary for your trip.

Whether you are going on a holiday to a beach resort or a full blown expedition to some remote location.

However long you will be away or however many people will be in your group, wherever you are going and whatever you are doing, you can obtain your own customised list.

To access this special service:-

 
Member of the
British Travel Health
Association

 
 
 

Do you know which medicines you should take with you on your travels?

By accessing the interactive part of this web site you can obtain a list of all the medicines necessary for your trip.

Whether you are going on a holiday to a beach resort or a full blown expedition to some remote location.

However long you will be away or however many people will be in your group, wherever you are going and whatever you are doing, you can obtain your own customised list.

To access this special service:-

 
Member of the
British Travel Health
Association

 
 
 
Member of the
British Travel Health
Association

 
Home Introduction Information Main Page About Us Links
Travel Vaccine Information
---


For a list of Travel Clinics
in the UK where you can obtain your travel vaccines:

Unfortunately, many of the diseases that the more developed countries have eliminated are still prevalent in other parts of the world.

Travellers to tropical countries
as well as to many other regions will need to be vaccinated against these diseases. Examples include: yellow fever, hepatitis, typhoid fever, polio, diphtheria and many others.

When deciding which travel vaccines are required, each individual traveller should obtain information relating to the country or countries they intend to visit. (e.g. the tables of vaccine requirements in this site). It should be noted however, that even experts disagree on the detail and travellers may receive conflicting information.

Travellers should therefore assess their own risk by considering the nature of their trip; For example, a business traveller visiting only hygienic, air conditioned premises for a few days cannot be compared to someone travelling extensively to rural areas of the same country where health risks are considerably higher and access to medical facilities is limited or poorly developed.

Despite their success in preventing disease, vaccines are not 100% effective all of the time. The vaccinated traveller should never assume that there is no risk of catching the disease against which they have been vaccinated. All the usual precautions should be followed carefully as these can be as important in preventing the illness as the vaccine itself.

Vaccines, how do they work?

When the body is exposed to foreign organisms, such as bacteria and viruses, the immune system produces antibodies against them. Antibodies help the body recognise and kill the foreign organisms. They then remain in the body to help protect the body against future infections with the same organism. This is known as active immunity.

The immune system produces different antibodies for each foreign organism it encounters. This establishes a pool of antibodies that helps protect the body from various different diseases.

Vaccines contain extracts or inactivated forms of bacteria or viruses that cause disease. These altered forms of the organisms stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against them, but don't actually cause disease themselves.

The antibodies produced remain in the body so that if the organism is encountered naturally, the immune system can recognise it and attack it, thus preventing it from causing disease.

Each bacteria or virus stimulates the immune system to produce a specific type of antibody, and this means that different vaccines are needed to prevent different diseases.

Immunisation against Typhoid, Hepatitis A and Polio is not critical for short stays in high class accommodation within many tourist resorts in countries otherwise at risk. Adherence to the rules for eating and drinking safely is however, always recommended.

Diphtheria/Tetanus or even Diphtheria/Tetanus/Polio combined vaccine is generally now recommended where tetanus immunisation is indicated and a booster dose required.

The elimination of Poliomyelitis in many regions may cause people to question the need for immunisation. It is generally accepted however, that protection is necessary for travel outside Northern and Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand.

Polio boosters are no longer required for travel to the Americas including South and Central America so long as individuals have had a primary course of polio vaccine during their lifetime.


Travel Vaccinations on the NHS

Currently in the UK, the Hepatitis A vaccine, the Typhoid vaccine and the combined Diphtheria/Tetanus/Polio vaccines are available free of charge on the NHS from GP surgeries. These vaccinations may also be obtained from travel clinics where a charge will be levied.

Other vaccinations such as Yellow Fever are not available on the NHS and must be obtained from travel clinics where a charge will be levied.

Nowadays there are very few mandatory immunisation requirements for travellers. Yellow fever is the main example and is only required for parts of Africa, South America and Asia. A certificate of vaccination is often required when entering a country from another country where yellow fever is endemic.

Very often vaccination regulations are a public health measure for the receiving country rather than for the protection of the individual.

Travellers may sometimes be informed by travel companies and embassies that "nothing is needed". Be warned, this could mean that no vaccination certificates are required for entry into that country. Immunisation may however, still be recommended.

Live vaccines should be administered at least four weeks apart or on the same day. However, the two oral vaccines typhoid and polio are usually separated by at least two weeks due to interference in the gut. Oral typhoid may be given concurrently with yellow fever or HNIG.

Inactivated vaccines can be given simultaneously with any other vaccine but at a different site for patient comfort. Concurrent administration does however, make it difficult to elucidate adverse reactions.

Remember: many health problems facing travellers are not vaccine preventable e.g. malaria and HIV. Guidelines regarding injury prevention, food and water hygiene, protection against insects and safe sex are equally important.

Vaccination Schedules

Where possible, the recommended intervals between different vaccines or doses should be followed. This allows time for antibodies to be produced and any reaction to the vaccine to subside.

All commonly used vaccines
can safely and effectively be given simultaneously (that is, on the same day) without impairing antibody responses or increasing rates of adverse reactions. This knowledge is particularly helpful for international travelers for whom exposure to several infectious diseases might be imminent.

In general, inactivated vaccines may be administered simultaneously at separate sites. However, when vaccines commonly associated with local or systemic reactions are given simultaneously, reactions can be accentuated.

Inactivated vaccines usually require one primary dose followed by one or more booster doses given at intervals of around four weeks. If time is short, a single dose will give some protection. Most inactivated vaccines can be given together safely; inactivated and live vaccines can also be administered simultaneously.


When two live vaccines are required, they should be given either simultaneously at different sites. If live vaccines cannot be administered simultaneously, a four-week interval is recommended. Oral polio vaccine should not be given at the same time as oral typhoid vaccine.

Human Normal Immunoglobulin (HNIG) may interfere with the immune response to live vaccines and so should not be administered simultaneously. A live vaccine should ideally be given three weeks before or three months after an injection of HNIG. However, HNIG is unlikely to contain antibodies to the yellow fever virus and so they can be administered simultaneously. Oral polio vaccine when given as a booster can also be administered simultaneously with HNIG.

List of Travel Vaccinations by Country
 
Live Vaccines
Inactivated Vaccines
Measles
Mumps
Rubella
Oral poliomyelitis
Oral typhoid
Tuberculosis (BCG)
Yellow fever
-
-
Diphtheria toxoid
Tetanus toxoid
Poliomyelitis (injectable)
Typhoid (injectable)
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
Meningitis (ACWY)
Japanese encephalitis
Tick-borne encephalitis
Rabies
Influenza
Pertussis

Special Precautions

Pregnancy


Live vaccines should not be routinely given to pregnant women because of possible harm to the unborn child. However, where there is a significant risk of exposure (e.g. yellow fever) the need for vaccination may outweigh the risk of any possible harm to the unborn child. Inactivated vaccines should only be administered to pregnant women when the need for vaccination outweighs the risk of possible harm to the unborn child.

Breast Feeding

Most vaccines can be administered safely to breast feeding women. However, it is important to note that immunity does not pass to the child through its mother's milk.

Acute illness

If someone is suffering from an acute illness, immunisation should be postponed until they have recovered. However, for minor conditions with no fever or systemic upset, there is no need to postpone the vaccination schedule.



Immunocompromised patients

HIV infection: The Department of Health has advised that HIV positive patients can safely receive certain inactivated vaccines e.g. Polio, Diphtheria, Tetanus, Typhoid, and Hepatitis B. However they may have a sub-optimum immune response. Re-immunisation may be necessary in some cases and specialist advice should be obtained. Live virus vaccines should not be routinely administered to patients with HIV infection. HIV infected patients who will be at risk of exposure to Yellow Fever should seek specialist medical advice regarding Yellow Fever vaccination.

The Department of Health also advise that HIV positive patients travelling to a country where there is no risk of exposure to Yellow Fever but a Yellow Fever certificate is required for entry, should obtain a letter of exemption from their doctor or specialist. It would be prudent to ascertain beforehand that this would be acceptable to the country they are planning to visit.

Immunosuppression: Live virus vaccines should not be administered to immunosuppressed patients, such as those who have recently undergone radio or chemotherapy, or are receiving immuno-suppressant drugs such as corticosteroids.

Inactivated vaccines are not dangerous to these patients but may be ineffective.


Specific Vaccine Information
Yellow Fever Typhoid
Hepatitis A Dip/Tet/Pol
Meningitis Rabies
Hepatitis B Japanese B Encephalitis
Tick Borne Encephalitis Cholera


Yellow Fever

This is a serious viral illness spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. It is endemic to parts of tropical Africa and South America.

See the Yellow Fever page for more information.

A live vaccine (Stamaril) given as a single dose (0.5ml subcutaneously) at designated yellow fever centres where an international certificate of vaccination will be issued. Immunity starts ten days after vaccination and lasts for ten years.

After ten years a booster is required which is effective immediately and lasts for another ten years.

The certificate is mandatory for entry into certain countries particularly in East Africa. It is recommended that the traveller carries the certificate along with his or her passport when travelling to and from countries at risk.

 


Typhoid

Associated with poor hygiene and sanitation. Transmitted by infected food and drink and by the faecal oral route.

An inactivated surface antigen vaccine (Typhim Vi, Typherix) given as a single dose (0.5ml is given by subcutaneous or intramuscular injection). Effective after two to three weeks, immunity lasts up to three years.

After three years a booster is required which is effective immediately and lasts for another three years.

This vaccine sometimes induces a mild form of the illness which can be quite unpleasant in a few cases.

Another vaccine; Vivotif® which is a live attenuated oral vaccine comprising enteric-coated capsules to be taken orally.

3 capsules to be taken within 7 days with a minimum of 24 hours between capsules.
The recommended schedule is: 1 capsule on days 1,3,5.

Onset of Protection is 7-10 days after 3rd capsule taken
The duration of Protection is 1 year

Minimum age: 6 years

 


Hepatitis A

Associated with poor hygiene and sanitation. Transmitted by infected food and drink, personal contact and by the faecal oral route.

Hepatitis A vaccine is an inactivated vaccine prepared from the hepatitis A virus and containing virus antigens.

Havrix Monodose, Avaxim; A single 1.0ml or 0.5ml dose (jab) is given intramuscularly and provides immunity up to one year, effective after two to four weeks. A booster dose given between six and twelve months of the original gives immunity up to ten years effective immediately.

For children under 16, Havrix Junior Monodose is available and gives similar immunity to the adult dose. Not suitable for children under 12 months.

Epaxal®;
This comes in the form of an injection and is an "inactivated virosome". A single 0.5ml dose provides immunity up to one year, effective after two to four weeks. A booster dose given between six and twelve months of the original dose gives immunity up to twenty years, effective immediately. Minimum age: 1 year

Vaqta Paed. For children 2 to 17 years. A single 0.5ml dose gives immunity up to 18 months. A further 0.5ml given between 6 and 18 months gives immunity up to 9 years.

Human Normal Immunoglobulin (HNIG) contains antibodies to Hepatitis A and will give protection for up to three months, effective immediately. 2ml of vaccine is administered by deep intramuscular injection.

Where hepatitis A protection is recommended for travel, vaccine is the preferred option rather than normal immunoglobulin.

There is some evidence of protection even when vaccine is given after first exposure, so that if time before departure is short, the vaccine is still considered likely to prevent or at least modify the infection.

 


Diphtheria/Tetanus/Polio

Diphtheria is transmitted through respiratory droplets, personal contact and contaminated clothing, bed linen etc. Tetanus spores are present in the soil worldwide and the disease is caused from contaminated wounds. Polio is transmitted through the faecal/oral and oral routes.

The primary vaccination course for all three is given as part of the childhood immunity programme (in the UK). It is also recommended that booster vaccines be given to persons travelling to certain high risk areas.

Diphtheria: Prior to the 1940s, diphtheria was a common disease in the UK but with the introduction of an immunization programme in the 1940s there was a dramatic fall in the number of cases reported. By the late 1950s the disease had been all but eradicated.

Diphtheria cases continue to be reported from the Indian Subcontinent, South East Asia, Africa and South America. There was also a resurgence of diphtheria in the former Soviet Union as a result of epidemics in the 1980s and 1990s.

Booster vaccines are now recommended for travellers to these regions. The diphtheria vaccine is made from a toxin extracted from a strain of the organism responsible for the disease. It is now only administered as a part of combined products.

Tetanus: The Department of Health previously recommended administration of reinforcing (booster) doses of tetanus vaccine at ten year intervals, with the administration of further doses in the event of injuries that may give rise to tetanus.

Dirty wounds can become infected with tetanus spores anywhere in the world. Therefore, every traveller should be fully protected against tetanus. Any type of injury from a simple laceration to a more serious wound can expose the individual to the spores.

The Department of Health further advised in 2002 that tetanus vaccine is to be replaced by the combined tetanus/low dose diphtheria (pertussis & polio) vaccines for adults and adolescents for routine use and for travel vaccination. Stocks of single tetanus vaccine are now exhausted and companies are no longer supplying this product.

Polio: Until 2004 Oral Polio Vaccine was used for routine immunisation in the UK. Immunised individuals only required a single booster dose every ten years if they intended to travel.

Travellers who have not been properly immunised or whose immunity has waned are at risk if they are travelling to areas of the world where polio still occurs. ie. parts of Africa, Afghanistan and the Indian Subcontinent are particularly at risk.

Until the disease is certified as eradicated, the risk of acquiring it remains. The consequences of infection are life-threatening or crippling and infected travellers may also act as vectors for transmission and possible reintroduction. All travellers should therefore be up to date with vaccination against poliomyelitis.

The oral vaccine is no longer available for routine use and will only be available for outbreak control. The polio vaccine is now usually (but not always) given as a part of a combined product.

All individuals in the UK should have undergone a primary immunisation course for all three as part of the childhood vaccination shedules. They are usually administed in conjuction with other vaccines such as pertussis (whooping cough). Individuals who are resident in the UK but have not been previously immunised should should contact their GP for immunisation advice.

Tetanus immunization is generally required before starting school. Five doses of vaccine are recommended. When over ten years has elapsed since the primary immunisation course or the person is travelling to a country where tetanus is indicated, a tetanus booster should be given. This could either be in the form of a "Td vaccine" which is a 2-in-1 vaccine that protects against tetanus and diphtheria and is required every 10 years or in the form of the new "Tdap vaccine" one time. The Tdap vaccine is a 3-in-1 vaccine that comprises tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis.

Diphtheria vaccination is also one of the recommended childhood immunisations which should begin during infancy. A diphtheria booster should also be given if travel is for more than one month to a country or region where it is indicated.

Polio vaccination is another one of the recommended childhood immunizations and vaccination should begin during infancy. A polio booster may also be advised for travel to certain countries if ten years has elapsed since the primary course.

The appropriate combined diphtheria/tetanus or diphtheria/tetanus/polio etc. preparations are now normally used when any of these is required. Here are some (not all) of the vaccines available:

REVAXIS (diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid and poliomyelitis inactivated vaccine) is a booster vaccination used following primary immunization against diphtheria, tetanus and polio. 0.5ml is given by intramuscular injection, Immunity is immediate and lasts for 10 years. It is particularly useful for travellers since it provides a booster dose for all three diseases.

DIFTAVAX (diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid). A vaccine suitable for persons over 10 years of age. When used as a booster, 0.5ml is given by intramuscular injection. Immunity is immediate and lasts for 10 years.

INFANRIX (diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, pertussis toxoid & inactivated poliovirus). This vaccine is indicated for booster vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and poliomyelitis diseases in individuals from 16 months to 13 years of age inclusive. A single dose of 0.5 ml should be administered by intramuscular injection, usually into the deltoid muscle. Immunity is immediate and lasts for 10 years.

BOOSTRIX (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine - Tdap). A booster vaccine for adults and adolescents. 0.5ml is given by intramuscular injection, usually into the deltoid muscle. Immunity is immediate and is supposed to last for life. Currently available in the USA but not in the UK.

Vaccines for Adolescents and Adults

  • Tdap was licensed in 2005. It is the first vaccine for adolescents and adults that protects against all three diseases; (tetanus, diphtheria & pertussis).
  • Td (tetanus and diphtheria) vaccine has been used for many years as booster doses for adolescents and adults. It does not contain pertussis vaccine.

Vaccines for children younger than 7 Years

  • DTaP vaccine is given to children to protect them from these three diseases. Immunity can fade over time, and periodic “booster” doses are needed by adolescentsand adults to keep immunity strong. (DTP is an older version of DTaP and is no longer used.
  • DT contains diphtheria and tetanus vaccines. It is used for children younger than seven who should not have the pertussis vaccine.


Meningitis ACWY

Transmitted through respiratory droplets and personal contact. Meningitis vaccine is recommended for travellers to areas where the disease is endemic such as most of Sub-Saharan Africa.

Saudi Arabia requires vaccination of pilgrims to Mecca during the Hajj.

ACWY Vax, 0.5ml of inactivated vaccine is given by deep subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. Immunity is effective after two to three weeks and lasts up to five years in adults and children over five but only up to three years in children under five.

A single booster dose is required after five years for adults and children over five. Immunity is effective immediately and lasts for five years. The booster is required after three years in children under five where immunity is effective immediately and lasts for three years.

A new vaccine called Menveo is now available which protects against the meningitis strains A, C, W and Y. It is the first of a new type of four-strain meningitis vaccine.

Menveo should be administered as a single 0.5ml intramuscular injection, preferably into the deltoid muscle (upper arm).

Since the vaccine is relatively new, whether a booster dose of Menveo will be needed has not yet been determined. The duration of protection following immunization is not yet known.

 


Rabies

The risk to travellers in endemic areas is proportional to their exposure to potentially rabid animals. Travellers in tourist resorts are at very low risk.

Prophylactic immunisation against rabies is therefore recommended for long term travellers to endemic areas especially those travelling to remote locations beyond the reach of immediate medical help.

Following suspect contact, especially from a bite or scratch, competent medical advice (where available) should be sought even in those who have received pre-exposure vaccines.

Vaccination against rabies is carried out in two distinct situations:
  1. To protect those who are likely to be exposed - Pre-exposure.
  2. To prevent establishment after exposure has taken place - Post-exposure.
The vaccines used for pre and post exposure are the same but the schedule of administration is different.

For pre-exposure; three 1.0ml doses are given by intramuscular (deltoid) injection on days 0, 7 and 21 to 28 (a few days variation in timing is not important).

A booster dose is required every two to three years depending upon risk of exposure.


Rabies Vaccine BP:
The first human diploid cell vaccine licensed in the UK. Suitable for both pre- or post- exposure prophylaxis.


Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a bloodborne viral infection that is spread through infected blood, contaminated needles, etc. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes hepatitis (inflammation of the liver), jaundice, long term liver damage and occasionally liver cancer.

Hepatitis B is also a sexually transmitted disease and the virus is found in the blood and semen of infected men and is spread in the same manner as HIV. HBV is easier to catch than HIV because it is more than 100 times more concentrated in an infected person's blood and can exist on surfaces outside the body.

Hepatitis B can be prevented through vaccination. If the vaccine is administered before infection, it prevents the development of the disease and the carrier state in almost all individuals.

Short term travellers are not generally at risk but may place themselves at risk by their sexual behaviour. Travellers requiring surgery in certain countries will be at risk so a kit containing sterile needles, sutures, etc. would be very useful.

Those visiting high risk areas for long periods or at social or occupational risk should be immunised e.g. such as voluntary workers, who may also be at risk from medical or dental procedures carried out in those countries.

The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is high in certain areas of the world. These include all of sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, including China, Indonesia, Korea, and the Philippines; the Eastern Mediterranean except Israel; South and Western Pacific islands; the interior Amazon Basin; and certain parts of the Caribbean, i.e. the Dominican Republic and Haiti.

The disease is moderately prevalent in South, Central and Southwest Asia, Israel, Japan, Eastern and Southern Europe, the Russian Federation, and most of Central and South America.

The hepatitis B vaccine is a synthetically made yeast derived vaccine. The body is stimulated by the vaccine to form antibodies against the actual hepatitis B virus.

There are two different types of the vaccine. One is called Engerix-B and the other is called HB-II Vax. There is a new combined vaccine available which also protects against Hepatitis A (Twinrix).

The vaccination is given as a course of three 1.0ml intra-muscular injections, the second 28 days after the first and the third 6 months after the second. Immunity lasts for at least five years.

Universal infant immunization is now recognized as the proper strategy for every country for the long-term control of chronic HBV infection.

 


Japanese B encephalitis

This is a rare but serious insect borne disease that occurs in most of the Far East and South East Asia. It is transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito just like malaria but it is a viral infection rather than a protozoan as in malaria.

Vaccination is recommended for stays of longer than one month in rural areas during and just after the rainy season. However, it may be required for shorter stays if visiting an area of high risk such as rice fields or close to pig farms. Travel should be avoided within 10 to 14 days of the primary course in case a delayed allergic reaction occurs.

IXIARO, the first licensed European vaccine for the prevention of Japanese Encephalitis is now available for adults in the UK.

The vaccination course consists of two doses of 0.5 ml each as follows:

The first dose of 0.5ml is followed by a second dose of 0.5ml, 28 days after first dose.

Persistence of protective immunity is unknown. The timing and effect of booster immunisation is currently under investigation.

The vaccine should be administered by intramuscular injection into the deltoid muscle. It should not be injected intravascularly.

IXIARO is not recommended for use in children and adolescents due to lack of current data on safety and efficacy.


Tick Borne Encephalitis

This is a viral infection transmitted by the bite of an infected tick and rarely from drinking unpasteurised milk.

It is recommended for travellers to forest and grassland areas of certain European countries and is common in forest and mountainous regions of Austria, Estonia, Latvia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Switzerland, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Bulgaria, Romania, northern Yugoslavia, and Iran. It occurs at a lower frequency in Denmark, France and along the coastline of southern Sweden.

Travellers to endemic areas may be at risk when walking, camping or working in woodland terrain. The risk is highest during the spring and summer months.

FSME: The course comprises three doses. The first dose on day 0, the second dose one to three months later and the third dose five to twelve months after the second. It gives a 97% protection rate and lasts for three years.

The booster comprises a single dose after no more than three years. It is effective immediately and subsequent boosters should be given at three to five year intervals.

 


Cholera

Cholera is no longer routinely recommended for international travel. The Department of Health has advised that in rare circumstances where an unofficial demand be anticipated, confirmation of non requirement of cholera vaccine may be given on official note paper, signed and stamped by a medical practitioner.

The old type cholera vaccine which was given by injection offers poor protection against the disease and is no longer recommended for use by the Department of Health or the World Health Organisation.

However, in May 2004 a new vaccine (Dukoral) was licensed in the UK for immunisation against cholera for people travelling to highly endemic or epidemic areas, particularly emergency relief and health workers in refugee situations.

The vaccine may be considered for the following:

  • People working in areas where there are known cholera outbreaks (e.g. aid workers).
  • Travellers staying for long periods in known high risk areas and/or where close contact with locals is likely, and who do not have access to medical care.
  • Travellers to risk areas who have an underlying gastro-intestinal disease or immune suppression.
The vaccine is taken as a raspberry flavoured drink and can be used in adults and children over 2 years. It is not currently licensed in the UK for travellers diarrhoea.

The standard primary course of vaccination with Dukoral against cholera consists of 2 doses for adults and children from 6 years of age. Children 2 to 6 years of age should receive 3 doses. Doses are to be administered at intervals of at least one week. If more than 6 weeks have elapsed between doses, the primary immunisation course should be re-started.

For continuous protection against cholera a single booster dose is recommended after 2 years for adults and children from 6 years of age, and after 6 months for children aged 2 to 6 years. No clinical efficacy data has been generated on repeat booster dosing. However, immunological data suggest that if up to 2 years have elapsed since the last vaccination a single booster dose should be given. If more than 2 years have elapsed since the last vaccination the primary course should be repeated.

Dukoral®: Vaccine Type: Inactivated, suspension & buffer solution
Mode of Delivery: Oral
Vaccine Schedule:
Adults and children over 6: 2 doses between 1 & 6 weeks apart. 1 booster dose after 2 years.
Children 2-6 years: 3 doses between 1&6 weeks apart. 1 booster dose after 6 months.
Minimum Age: 2 years
Onset of Protection: 7 days after 2nd dose
Duration of Protection: 2 years for adults & children over 6 years,
6 months for children aged 2-6 years.

 

Immunity information at a glance

Disease

No of Doses
(Jabs)
Interval Between
1st & 2nd Dose
Interval Between 2nd & 3rd Dose
Onset of
Protection
Duration of
Protection

Yellow Fever

1
---
---
After 10 to 14 days
10 years

Typhoid

1
---
---
After 10 to 14 days
3 years

Hepatitis A

2
3 to 6 months
---
After 10 to 14 days
10 years

Immunoglobulin (HNIG)

1
---
---
Immediate
3 to 6 months

Diphtheria*

1
---
---
Immediate
10 years

Tetanus*

1
---
---
Immediate
10 years

Polio*

1
---
---
Immediate
10 years

Meningitis

1
---
---
After 14 to 21 days
3 to 5 years

Rabies

3
7 days
21 days
2 days after last dose
2 years

Hepatitis B

3
28 days
5 months
2 days after last dose
5 years

Japanese B
Encephalitis

2
28 days
---
7 days after last dose
unknown

Tick Borne
Encephalitis

3
7 days
21 days
2 days after last dose
2 years

Cholera

2
7 to 28 days
---
7 days after last dose
3 months
* Primary immunistation is required beforehand.

For a country by country guide to travel vaccination requirements;
Click on the required region of the map below for a list of countries in that region
North America & the Caribbean Central & South America Europe Africa Asia & the Middle East Australia, New Zealand & the Pacific Islands Hawaii Australia, New Zealand & the Pacific Islands Australia, New Zealand & the Pacific Islands

Useful information on travel vaccines can be found in the following web sites:-
     
 
     
 
     
 
     
 
 
 

     
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